The dental procedure that has probably gotten the most bad publicity of all is the root canal. Many times you’ll hear someone say they’d rather have a root canal than do something that is distasteful or possibly painful.
That’s really not fair to the root canal. You see, the procedure itself is pretty much pain free with modern dentistry. However there are other dental problems that can indeed cause quite a bit of pain and also end up requiring a root canal as part of the solution.
A root canal is a treatment used to repair and save a tooth that is badly decayed or becomes infected. During a root canal procedure, the nerve and pulp are removed and the inside of the tooth is cleaned and sealed. Without treatment, the tissue surrounding the tooth will become infected and abscesses may form.
The procedure, then, is a repair procedure used to save a tooth that is in pretty bad shape from either decay or infection. A tooth, without the root canal, that would likely be lost.
How, you ask, can all of that happen? Well a number of things can cause the need for a root canal:
A tooth’s nerve and pulp can become irritated, inflamed, and infected due to deep decay, repeated dental procedures on a tooth, and/or large fillings, a crack or chip in the tooth, or trauma to the face.
As you can tell, many of the causes that require the procedure can be prevented by good oral hygiene and regular dental care.
Also, if left too long before treatment is rendered, the tooth can abscess. Abscesses are one of the primary reasons for pain associated with the procedure. If the procedure is done in the absence of an abscess it is a relatively painless procedure.
If you have to get a root canal, what should you expect? Here is how it works:
A root canal requires one or more office visits and can be performed by a dentist or endodontist. An endodontist is a dentist who specializes in the causes, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and injuries of the human dental pulp or the nerve of the tooth. The choice of which type of dentist to use depends to some degree on the difficulty of the root canal procedure needed in your particular tooth and the general dentist’s comfort level in working on your tooth. Your dentist will discuss who might be best suited to perform the work in your particular case.
The first step in the procedure is to take an X-ray to see the shape of the root canals and determine if there are any signs of infection in a surrounding bone. Your dentist or endodontist will then use local anesthesia to numb the area near the tooth. Anesthesia may not be necessary, since the nerve is dead, but most dentists still anesthetize the area to make the patient more relaxed and at ease.
Next, to keep the area dry and free of saliva during treatment, your dentist will place a rubber dam (a sheet of rubber) around the tooth.
An access hole will then be drilled into the tooth. The pulp along with bacteria, the decayed nerve tissue and related debris is removed from the tooth. The cleaning out process is accomplished using root canal files. A series of these files of increasing diameter are each subsequently placed into the access hole and worked down the full length of the tooth to scrape and scrub the sides of the root canals. Water or sodium hypochlorite is used periodically to flush away the debris.
Once the tooth is thoroughly cleaned, it is sealed. Some dentists like to wait a week before sealing the tooth. For instance, if there is an infection, your dentist may put a medication inside the tooth to clear it up. Others may choose to seal the tooth the same day it is cleaned out. If the root canal is not completed on the same day, a temporary filling is placed in the exterior hole in the tooth to keep out contaminants like saliva and food between appointments.
At the next appointment, to fill the interior of the tooth, a sealer paste and a rubber compound called gutta percha is placed into the tooth’s root canal. To fill the exterior access hole created at the beginning of treatment, a filling is placed.
The final step may involve further restoration of the tooth. Because a tooth that needs a root canal often is one that has a large filling or extensive decay or other weakness, a crown, crown and post, or other restoration often needs to be placed on the tooth to protect it, prevent it from breaking, and restore it to full function. Your dentist will discuss the need for any additional dental work with you.
So, as you can see, a root canal can be a very routine form of dentistry which will actually save your tooth. And the pain factor is actually low, given the lack of an infection or abscess.
Moral of the story? Don’t fear the root canal. It’s not as bad as it is trumped up to be and it can save your teeth and help you keep that dazzling smile.